Wednesday, 25 December 2013


“Samattvam yoga uchyate” says the Gita.  Equanimity itself is yoga.  To maintain our balance amidst the roller-coaster ride of life requires effort, purity and understanding.  In the second chapter verse 14 of the Gita it is said – “He who remains unaffected by the pairs of opposites is the noblest amongst men and such a person is fit for immortality” 
Poojya Gurudev Swami Chinmayananda used to give the example of a mysore doll in his talks.  We may not be able to maintain equanimity all the time.  Atleast we must learn to live like a mysore doll.  The mysore doll has a round base. Whenever it is tapped from one side it swings from one side to another but very soon it comes back to balance.  Same way we must learn to quickly regain our balance and equanimity inspite of  life’s turbulence. 

Here are a few methods to develop equanimity:


  • Resistance to what life brings to us creates agitation.  Life will bring varied experiences to everyone.   We must accept life as it is and move with the flow.  Accept people, objects & situations as they are.  This does not mean any complacency or inability to improve etc.  Having accepted what has come to us, we have the choice to do what we want with it.  Eg.  An accident or a loss in business or sickness can cause pain. But suffering over it is optional.  A wise person will accept the disappointment and do what needs to be done to come out of it. But will not lose one’s balance, become dejected etc.    Same is applicable for successful situations too. 
    • Lot of our energy is wasted when we resist and brood over – “Why me?”  We cannot accept life and fight with what has come and try to reject it, neglect it or run away from it.  We must have the readiness to accept anything and everything.  Whenever the mind says – “Why me?” we must ask – “Why not?” 
    • A farmer was asked – “What weather will it be today?”  The farmer said – “Whatever I like.”  The questioner was surprised and asked- “How?” 
      Farmer replied – “Since I know that I can’t always get what I like, I have started liking whatever I get.”
    • What does not allow us to accept life as it is?  Our own insistence.
      We insist on certain things in life and if we can’t attain them or if they are not according to our wish we lose our peace.  Eg. A boy who insists on being a topper is sad if he discovers that he got 2nd rank. But a boy who has just managed to pass is much more happy.  Why? The first boy was too insistent.  Nothing wrong in aiming to be at the top but when the results come cheerful acceptance should be there.  Our sorrow is directly proportional to our insistence. 

      Time-tested guaranteed formula for sorrow- 
      Insistence + Resistance = Sorrow.
      The Formula for Happiness -  Acceptance + Independence = Happiness. 
    • How to accept life as it comes?
                                               i.     Self-Acceptance:  Let us accept ourselves as we are. Let us not fight with ourselves or indulge in self-praise. Progress in sadhana is faster when there is self-acceptance.  When we dislike ourselves or fight with ourselves we don’t have energy to face life with equanimity.  “Love Thyself”
                                             ii.     Karma:  What has come to me is my own past karma.  Let me go through the results in dignity.  Let me not complain and crib.  Through my present self-effort I can create a glorious future.  Let me focus on free-will.
                                            iii.     Surrender: God knows what is best for me.  I accept everything as HIS will and HIS Prasad.  “Let thy will be done.” 
                                            iv.     Values:  Hold on to certain universal values. Gita gives us a lot of lists of values to cultivate.  Identify a few values as ‘MY CORE VALUES’ and hold on to them without compromise.  This will make the mind disciplined. 
                                             v.     Handle disappointments with Courage(Dhairya) and Tolerance (Titiksha).  Handle elation with Alertness(Savadhani) & Self-Control(Samyam).  It is easier to handle disappointment.  We can easily get carried away by success, break rules and indulge.  Hence we must be alert and aware.
                                            vi.     Learning Attitude:   We can learn from every experience as the students in the school of life.  One who has this attitude will never be disturbed.  Every moment is an opportunity to learn.  “The world is a gym for mental training” said Sw.Vivekananda. 
                                          vii.     Having an inspiring ideal:  If we keep ourselves inspired by a higher ideal we will be able to keep our calm.  Lack of inspiration makes us petty and we become irritable, fault-finding and are stuck with narrow vision. 

                                         viii.     Get out of the Memory Trap: Psychological Memory creates desire and brooding over it we get bound.  Having learnt from the past, lets drop the regrets.  Having an inspiring ideal/goal lets Look Ahead. When both these are done with the attitude of detachment, mind transcends fear of future and regrets of the past. Such a mind can be equanimous.

Complete Acceptance of life as it is, is Total Detachment. Deeper the detachment, greater the acceptance, Higher the Equanimity, Purer the mind & Steadier the Contemplation. Abidance in Self-Knowledge happens then. Acceptance to Abidance is the pathless Journey to arrive Here & Now.

Thursday, 12 December 2013

Sri Swami Tapovanam - Tapas & Sannyasa Personified

In the tenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita,Lord Krishna describes His divine glories in many ways: Among the non-moving, I am the Himalayas; among the rivers, I am the Ganga; amongst all types of knowledge, I am spiritual Knowledge, and so on.If the Lord had to speak in the present context, he would have said,“Amongst sannyäsins, I am Swami Tapovanam.” In TapovanaShatkam, Swami Tapovanam is extolled as Brahman and as IshvaraShri Soumya Kaasheesha Maheshvaraaya Tasmai Namah Swami Tapovanaaya.   As Brahman, he is indescribable,but the form that he took and the way he lived is the very epitome of sannyäsa and tapas.

Pujya Gurudev once told a brahmachari studying in Sandeepany Sadhanalaya, Mumbai, “The very air you are breathing is due to the grace of Swami Tapovan Maharaj.” Gurudev always believed that the entire work of Chinmaya Mission is nothing but the grace and glory of Swami Tapovan Maharaj. Pujya Guruji Swami Tejomayananda has also said that the tapas done bySwami Tapovan Maharaj forms the very foundation of Chinmaya Mission.[1]

In his composition Tapovana Anjali, Pujya Guruji describes the glory of our Parama Guru Swami Tapovanam. In the very first verse, he personifies Sannyäsa who is searching for an abode, and not finding a befitting one, approaches the Lord. Bhagavan gives a place to everybody; even sleep has an abode – satsanga! He tells Sannyäsa that in the land of Kerala there is a young person who is a fit abode for him. He could reside there and worship the young man, because he would lend glory to sannyäsa.

Right from his birth, Swami Tapovanam lived a life of utmost dispassion and detachment. He studied the Mandukya Karika under Swami Hridayananda, who remarked that Tapovanji did not need initiation into sannyäsa by anyone else; he could embrace sannyäsa on his own. Swami Shantyananda, who had taught him the scriptures earlier, had also told him that he was fit for a life of renunciation. After giving it due thought, at the age of thirty-four years, he performed the prescribed rituals of sannyäsa all alone on the banks of the river Narmada and adopted the name Tyagananda. His ideals for taking this step were Buddha, Vivekananda and Swami Rama Tirtha– all of whom had taken sannyäsa by themselves. As for Tapovanji Maharaj, he was an embodiment of tyäga (renunciation), tapas(austerity) and sannyäsa(asceticism).

In the Gita three types of tapas are mentioned – Sharirika(physical), mänasika (mental) and väk (speech). Swamiji practised all the three, and all the virtues mentioned in the scriptures manifested in his life. No wonder, as he was born on Gita Jayanti Day, with the blessings of Mother Gita!

Shareerika Tapas: Tapas at the physical level consists of worshipping the Lord, brahmanas, the teacher and other wise men, cultivating the qualities of purity, straightforwardness, celibacy, non-violence etc.[2]   Tapovanji Maharaj had deep devotion to Lord Siva right from his childhood and worshipped Him regularly. He took every opportunity to visit various temples all over the country. He would try to meet the mahätmäs in such places and have satsaìga with them. In fact, the first half of his biography Ishwara Darshan narrates all his pilgrimages. He had not formally studied under one particular teacher alone, but tried to obtain knowledge from all the mahätmäs he met. Later in life, as a realized mahatma also, he went to the Saumyakasi temple in Uttarakasi every day, carrying water from the Ganga for abhisheka. It was during such visits that the Saumyakasisa Stotram was composed. After the worship everyday, seated in the temple, he would compose a few verses as a prayer. Thus was born the Saumyakasisa Stotram, a gist of many Upanishads.

Even during his young days in Kerala, he used to wake up at 3 a.m. and go for long walks every day. After praanaayaama, he would bathe. Then he would be lost in samädhi for long spells. This habit he continued even in Uttarakasi and Gangotri. He lived a very straightforward and simple life. He was born in a very rich family, but never took anything from his father except the basic necessities.After his father passed away, he took care of the property as a trustee and discharged his duties, educated his brother and finally handing over everything to him, went away to the Himalayas.

After that, he never encouraged any correspondence from his family members though he was very compassionate by nature. When he took sannyäsa, he got his sketch prepared and sent it along with a note to his family members, without mentioning his address. Explaining the importance and glory of sannyäsa, he advised them not to grieve. Till about seventeen years after he left home, the family did not know his whereabouts. Finally, when they came to know where he was, they expressed a wish to correspond with him. Tapovanji Maharaj replied that they may write to him only if they had spiritual queries.

Gurudev reminisced that Swamiji used to have only three pairs of clothes with him. Even if gifted with an extra pair, he would give it away to somebody. His clothes would tear because he wandered in the jungles and this would be mended repeatedly. Sometimes his robe would be stitched up at so many places that it looked like patchwork, rather than one single piece.[3]  Sometimes, while washing his Guru’s clothes in the river, Gurudev would let it flow away and report that Gangaji had washed it away. He said once, “Mother Ganga and I would conspire so that Tapovanji Maharaj would wear a new robe.”

As we see it even today, his kutia did not have anything except a few books and blankets, the bare minimum. To live a life of brahmacarya at the physical level itself is a great strain for a beginner, and at the mental level it is very difficult, almost impossible for many. In the earlier years, people tried to persuade him to marry, but Tapovanji Maharaj shunned it all, and remained  ‘immovable like a mountain and majestic like the sea’.[4]  He remarked once that he would get married, and when they saw whom he married, they would not regret it. He was married to the Lord, wedded to the life of asceticism. He was the personification of brahmacarya; brahmani carati iti brahmachari – his mind always revelled in Brahman.

Absolute ahimsa or non-violence is not possible at the physical level, but it is possible at the mental level; one can eschew all intentions of hurting anybody. Tapovanji Maharaj maintained that as far as possible, even sannyäsa must be taken without hurting anybody. This was the reason why he waited till his brother was settled in life. However, even while living in the house, after performing his worldly duties he spent the rest of the time in sädhanä and samädhi. Seeking solitude, he would go deep into the forests, oblivious to the dangers therein. Thus he was very conscious and alert about practising the values of brahmacarya and ahimsä. 

There are several examples of his physical tapas (austerity). During his last days, when he was very sick, he used to lean back against the wall while sitting. Someone offered him a pillow and he refused it. On further persuasion, he rested on it for a short while. But from the next day onwards, he stopped taking the support of the wall against which the pillow was propped up.Another instance is when on a bitterly cold day, people were sitting around a fire for warmth and asked Tapovanji Maharaj to join them. But he did not go near it as he considered even that a sense pleasure. Imagine his concept of sense pleasure and compare it with our definition of it!

Swami Sundarananda, who served him in his last few years, once asked Maharaj for 25paise to buy salt. Maharaj retorted, “Namak khäne ke liye sädhu bane ho kyä?(Have you taken sannyäsa to eat salt?) He wanted him to curb his sense of taste. In fact, before eating, sädhus used to tie the food in a cloth and dip it in the Gangaji to remove all the spices and flavour. This was done to develop control over the taste. 

Even when his health was deteriorating in the last few years, Tapovanji Maharaj would not visit a doctor. He would not show undue concern for the body, knowing well that it is perishable by nature. In his final days, when he was very sick, Gurudev requested him to come to Delhi for treatment. But Tapovanji Maharaj refused, posing a question, “Don’t people die in Delhi?”Further, he said,“The Himalayas are so peaceful. I have lived here all my life. Why should I not leave my body here?”He explained patiently that after all, Lord Death had waited for 68 years for him to finish his work. Now it was time to meet Him.

Many of us think that the intellectual exercise of contemplation is a tapas by itself and there is no need for any other physical tapas. But Tapovanji Maharaj lived a life of physical, as well as mental austerity. He never allowed the body to dictate terms. He undertook the arduous pilgrimage to Kailas twice. The King of Nepal offered all facilities, but he chose to travel with the minimum basic resources, often walking barefoot and at times going without food. The yäträ was so strenuous that he wondered at many points whether the body would survive. Once he was out in the snow for a full night, and finding himself alive the next morning, he felt there was some purpose which the Lord wanted to fulfil through his body, because of which he had survived. As seekers, we should also try to do some tapas. Only when there is physical tapas, tamas can be destroyed. And tamas – ignorance – is the cause of our sorrow. Tamas is  expressed in the form of laziness, indulgence, lethargy etc.

Once Tapovanji Maharaj came to the Himalayas, he never went back to the plains. He would remain in Uttarakasi, Gangotri, Gomukh, and beyond that in Tapovan and Nandanvan. In the earlier days, he used to come down to Rishikesh, but stopped it later when the place started drawing crowds.

When he embraced sannyäsa, alone on the banks of river Narmada, there was no one to offer him bhikshä. He went to the place where the poor were fed, for his first bhikshä. Till his glory was known, there were times when he was turned away and rebuked, and on some days he went without a bhikshä. But he would be peaceful. He suffered diseases, but the mind never came down to the body level. He slept only for three or four hours. For him sleep was also an obstacle to sädhanä. This was the level of his Shaaririka tapas.

Väk Tapas: There is a tapas of speech also – väk tapas.In the Gita it is said that one should speak words which do not cause agitation; our words should not hurt anyone, they should be true, pleasing and beneficial –anudvegakaram väkyam, satyam priyahitam ca yat.[5]  Once a few brahmins came to meet his Guru Swami Shantyananda. At that time Tapovanji Maharaj was known as Chidvilasa, a name conferred on him fondly by Swami Shantyananda. The brahmins, in the course of their conversation, contended that being a non-brahmin he was not entitled to sannyäsa. Tapovanji Maharaj explained to them with the permission of his Guru that a mind desirous of seeking the Truth, wanting to know God alone, is surely entitled to be called a brahmin. He explained the qualities of a brahmin with reference to the scriptures. The brahmins then argued that he had not studied the Sästras in the traditional way. This would set a wrong example in society. Tapovanji Maharaj agreed very humbly that he had not studied in the prescribed manner, but had come to Swami Shantyananda exactly for that purpose.

The second yäträ to Mount Kailas was undertaken with a well-equipped group of sädhus. On the way, some merchants from Bhutan joined them. In those days, the yäträs were very dangerous, as people would be attacked by dacoits and robbed of their belongings. One such thief from a gang spied on them and found that the merchants were carrying some valuables. He struck up a conversation with Tapovanji Maharaj, understanding him to be a genuine sadhu with no possessions. Maharaj invited him to take a seat and treated him in a very friendly way. Before long, the robber was converted into a devotee. He convinced the leader of his gang that Tapovanji Maharaj and his group were not ordinary yätrés. They were great mahätmäs and should not be disturbed. Thus Tapovanji Maharaj was able to avert the danger for the whole group because he could deal with the situation without any kind of fear and speak to the thief in a way that was both pleasing and beneficial.

The above-mentioned verse from the Gita continues to detail the austerity of speech thus: svädhyäyäbhysanam caiva – practice of the study of the scriptures is also called vaangmaya tapas. The essence of this practice is the remembrance of the Lord at all times. In his book ‘Guidance from the Guru’, which is a set of letters to a householder couple, Maharaj advises repeatedly,“Don’t stop taking the name of the Lord. Begin the day with the Lord’s name and at the end of the day take the Lord’s name. Keep repeating the Lord’s name.” And he practiced it himself. Gurudev has said, “Out of purity and silence come words of power.” In Tapovanji Maharaj’s life we can see that very clearly.

Tapovanji Maharaj has written about an experience in his pürväshrama, when he was known by the name ‘Subramaniam’. During a pilgrimage to the important temples in the South, he went to Arunachala also. He climbed up to the cave where Ramana Maharshi lived. He had taken along some bananas and kept them in front of Bhagavan who was sitting there peacefully. Ramana Maharshi smiled at him and then for the next hour both of them sat quietly. Slowly, the monkeys came and took away the bananas. No words were exchanged; there was complete silence, yet there was total communion between them.

Tapovanji Maharaj had complete control over speech and never entertained worldly conversation. Gurudev used to recall that Tapovanji Maharaj would advise people not to waste their time in worldly talk,but to engage themselves in contemplation on Brahman. This was one of the reasons why many disciples could not stay with him for long.

Gurudev narrated an incident about a devotee who brought his rebellious son to Tapovanji Maharaj. The young boy wore clothes of the latest fashion and sat in front of him. Tapovanji Maharaj started talking with him about the latest films and actors,about his hobbies and friends. After befriending the youngster thus, while he was leaving, Tapovanji told him very gently to go for a walk every morning for fifteen minutes,then sit quietly for five minutes and then sleep again if he wished to. After a year, the boy came back – this time wearing traditional clothes and holy ashes on the forehead. He prostrated to Tapovan Maharaj. What a transformation after just one meeting with Tapovanji Maharaj! This was the power of his speech and tapas.
Gurudev writes that Tapovanji Maharaj would not entertain too much discussion even on Vedanta. His only advice was: “Go and meditate.” He had once asked Gurudev, “Why do you need peace to contemplate? Contemplate where you are, right in the middle of all the disturbances.”

Mänasika Tapas: The Gita says that serenity of mind, good-heartedness, silence, self-control, purity of nature – these are said to constitute mental austerity.[6] All these were found in abundant measure in Swami Tapovan Maharaj. He was always calm, peaceful and cheerful. The Gita also states that a cheerful mind makes the intellect sharp. This is essential for scriptural study and contemplation on the Truth. This state of peace is attained through karma yoga and prasäda buddhi – accepting everything as His grace.

Tapovanji Maharaj’s life is a beautiful example in the balanced combination of karma, upäsanä and jïäna. The first thirty-four years of his life were spent in karma yoga, fulfilling his duties. He educated his brother and set him up in life. He edited a magazine and wrote articles for general edification. He did his upäsanä (spiritual practices) regularly and always remembered that whatever came his way was by the grace of the Lord. His mind was always steady (sthairyam). Right from childhood, he was steadfast in holding on to the thoughts of renunciation and austerity and lived accordingly. He never ever thought that the world could give any pleasure.

He faced many obstacles,but remained steady, as his mind was filled with viveka (discrimination) and vairägya (dispassion). In Ishwara Darshan he has said that the mind will be tempted and the only way to handle it is through constant discrimination and dispassion. We cannot take it for granted that the mind will become steady and never fall again. Because of past tendencies, there will be ups and downs. The only way is the continuous practice of viveka and vairägya. In his case,because of the merits of his previous lives, the mind was steady in the thoughts of the Lord.

Tapovan Maharaj had complete control over his mind (ätma-vinigrahaù), which had become extremely single-pointed because of the constant disciplining. And he expected the same quality of mind from his students. One day, while he was taking a class, a crow sitting on a nearby tree started crowing loudly. Immediately a student looked up at it. Maharaj responded, “The class is over. Such inattentive students can’t learn Vedanta.”The scriptures declare that if one listens to this knowledge with complete single-pointedness, one can realize the Truth here and now. Hence his insistence on the mental concentration of students.

Tapovanji Maharaj had such purity of mind (bhäva-samshuddhi) that merely by looking at a bird in flight or a tree swaying in the wind, he would go into a trance. In the introduction to the book ‘Wandering in the Himalayas’, Gurudev writes:

“Swamiji once stopped in the middle of a walk to point out to me a spot in the distant sky where the golden colour had suddenly changed, in a mighty stroke of inscrutable inspirations, into a blue splash! On another occasion he cried, ‘Why can’t man see the Divinity behind that mad Painter who has painted this inspired beauty?’ In a thousand such instances he always directed my attention to see: a tiny crab returning to its hide-out or a spider weaving its web, sometimes the mighty pines whispering to each other, sometimes the majestic peaks of the snow-capped mountains divinely glistening above the lower hills. But alas, immature, unpoetic, and intellectually sophisticated as I was then, I must have sadly disappointed him.But I knew what he had felt, for I had watched him as he stood dissolved in divine harmony with Nature. At such inspired moments, an unearthly tranquility used to descend around him.”

Tapovanji’s purity of mind was such that he knew many things intuitively. Once, during his stay in Badrinath, where many learned people used to have satsaìga with him, one Swami Krishnamacharya expressed his intention to go on a yäträ to Kailas. Intuitively Tapovanji Maharaj understood that it was not good for him to go and tried his best to dissuade him, but to no avail. So the Swamiji left and within a few days the news reached them that he was attacked and killed by robbers on the way.

Once he came down from Gangotri to Uttarkasi fifteen days before his scheduled date. People wondered at his decision. But in the next 3-4 days there was very heavy rain and the cave in which Tapovanji Maharaj had stayed in Gangotri was wrecked by the rocks and boulders that came crashing down.

A pure mind does not mean it is dry and incapable of affection or the finer emotions. Tapovanji Maharaj had so much affection for Gurudev that at times he would wait for him to come. One day the students had gathered, but he would not begin the class.When asked why, he replied, “My disciple is yet to come.”And Gurudev arrived within a short while.

Gurudev used to say that pure mind is Brahman itself. The Upanishads say that a mind not bound to sense objects is a pure mind. We have to make an effort to be free of attachment to objects and cultivate purity of mind; in his case such a question did not arise because he was purity itself!

Such was the tapas of Swami Tapovan Maharaj at the levels of body, speech and mind. His intellect was constantly engaged in contemplation upon Brahman. Once Gurudev saw a sädhu standing in the Ganges the whole day, facing the sun and offering worship. He told Tapovanji Maharaj about this and remarked that he would not be able to do that kind of tapas. Maharaj replied that the sädhu would not be able to do the kind of tapas and contemplation that Gurudev did. It seems that he told Gurudev to go and find out from that man the reason for his tapas. To his surprise, he discovered that the man’s motive was to become the headman of his village so that he could marry the girl he loved! To Tapovanji Maharaj, tapas meant constant contemplation on the Truth.

In the Gita it is said that one whois not tempted by any sense objects, who does not have a restless urge to work and does not think that the source of happiness lies outside, is eligible for sannyäsa. Tapovanji Maharaj fulfilled all these conditions. It is said that he was once offered the headship, to become the mahant of Brahmananda Ashram. But Tapovanji Maharaj declined very politely, saying that he did not have the bent of mind for any administrative work. He wanted to contemplate and revel in the glory of the Lord constantly. In fact, the Gita declares that action, if done in the right spirit and dropped at the right time, can liberate us. Tapovanji Maharaj did both – for thirty-four years he lived the life of a karmayogi fulfilling his duties and then dropped it effortlessly, never to take it up again. He had no illusions of imaginary pleasures in the world.

Though he had taken sannyäsa by himself, when people insisted that he should get formal initiation from a Guru to keep up the tradition and set an example, he respected their opinion and accepted sannyäsa dékñä from Swami Janardana Giri of Kailas Ashram and was given the name Swami Tapovanam.

He was a great sannyäsi, who lived in this body referred to as a city of nine gates, with the attitude that ‘I am neither the doer nor do I cause any action’ – navadväre pure dehé naiva kurvan na kärayan.[7] Tapovanji Maharaj’s life was a crowning glory to the sannyäsa äshrama.

Swami Sundarananda says that in his last days, many mahätmäs came to see him. They were curious to see how a jévan-mukta leaves the body. On the final day, Tapovanji Maharaj got up at 3 o’clock. Swami Sundarananda brought coffee for him. He took two sips of coffee and gave it back. He said, “Isvar ko dhanyaväd ho. Ab main chaltä hün. (God be praised. Now I will leave.)” And consciously he exited the body the way it has been described in the eighth chapter of the Gita. He went silently, while all the people were sleeping.

Tapovanji Maharaj actually came to the world as a sannyäsé, lived as a sannyäsé and left the world as a sannyäsé. During this tenure, he underwent the formality of sannyäsa dékshä. We are fortunate to be in the lineage of such a great master.We should pray to have atleast a small part of his vairägya and knowledge seep into us.

Swami Sivananda said of him, “He is verily a tapovanam -- not a wild vanam or jungle with the rough growth of dry austerity and cynical seclusion. He is rather a upavanam full of the fragrance of the flowering of Vedanta and filled with the fruits of his mature realization. It is an upavanam where countless bees in the form of seekers, sädhakas and sannyäsés crowd to drink the honey of true wisdom. “

[1]Speech at World Workers Conference, December 2012.
[2]Gita, 17.14
[3]rathyä-carpata viracita-kanthaha punyäpunya-vivarjita-panthaha – Bhaja Govindam, verse 22
[4]IshvaraDarshan, chapter 6
[5]Gita, 17.15
[6]Gita, 17.16
[7]Gita, 5.13